Atomic Bonding And Conductivity Presentation

Introduction to Atomic Bonding and Conductivity
• Atomic bonding refers to the interaction between atoms to form stable compounds.
• Conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct electricity or heat.
• The type of atomic bonding in a material determines its conductivity properties.
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Types of Atomic Bonding
• There are three main types of atomic bonding: ionic, covalent, and metallic.
• Ionic bonding occurs when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, resulting in positively and negatively charged ions.
• Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons between atoms to form molecules.
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Ionic Bonding and Conductivity
• Ionic compounds are typically poor conductors of electricity in solid form.
• In ionic bonding, electrons are tightly held by ions, limiting their mobility.
• However, when ionic compounds dissolve in water or melt, the ions become mobile and can conduct electricity.
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Covalent Bonding and Conductivity
• Covalent compounds can be either conductors or insulators depending on their structure.
• In pure covalent compounds, electrons are shared equally, resulting in a lack of charged particles for conductivity.
• However, some covalent compounds can form a network structure, allowing electrons to move and conduct electricity.
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Metallic Bonding and Conductivity
• Metallic bonding occurs when delocalized electrons move freely between metal atoms.
• This mobility of electrons contributes to the high conductivity of metals.
• Metals are excellent conductors of both electricity and heat due to their metallic bonding.
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Factors Affecting Conductivity
• Conductivity is influenced by factors such as temperature, impurities, and crystal structure.
• Higher temperatures generally increase conductivity due to increased atomic vibrations and electron mobility.
• Impurities can disrupt the regular crystal structure, reducing conductivity.
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Conductivity in Semiconductors
• Semiconductors have an intermediate conductivity between conductors and insulators.
• In semiconductors, conductivity can be controlled by adding impurities through a process called doping.
• Doping introduces extra electrons or electron deficiencies, altering the conductivity properties.
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Superconductivity
• Superconductivity is a phenomenon where certain materials exhibit zero electrical resistance at extremely low temperatures.
• Superconductors are used in various applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines and particle accelerators.
• The exact mechanism behind superconductivity is still not fully understood.
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Applications of Conductivity
• Conductivity plays a crucial role in numerous technologies, including electrical wiring, electronic devices, and power transmission.
• Conductive materials are also used in sensors, solar cells, and batteries.
• Understanding atomic bonding and conductivity is essential for advancing these technologies.
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Conclusion
• Atomic bonding determines the conductivity properties of materials.
• Different types of bonding, such as ionic, covalent, and metallic, result in different conductivity characteristics.
• Conductivity is influenced by factors such as temperature, impurities, and crystal structure, and has various applications in modern technology.
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