DNA, TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION,PROTEINS Presentation
|Introduction to DNA|
|DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.|
It is a molecule that carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms.
DNA is composed of two strands twisted into a double helix structure.
|Transcription is the process by which DNA is converted into RNA.|
It takes place in the nucleus of the cell.
The enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of RNA from the DNA template.
|Steps of Transcription|
|Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at the promoter region.|
Elongation: RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, synthesizing RNA in the 5' to 3' direction.
Termination: RNA polymerase reaches a termination signal on the DNA, and the newly formed RNA molecule is released.
|Translation is the process by which RNA is used to synthesize proteins.|
It takes place in the ribosomes, which are located in the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to the ribosome, where they are assembled into proteins.
|Steps of Translation|
|Initiation: The ribosome binds to the mRNA molecule at the start codon.|
Elongation: tRNA molecules bring specific amino acids to the ribosome, and the amino acids are joined together to form a growing polypeptide chain.
Termination: The ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA, and the newly synthesized protein is released.
|The genetic code is a set of rules that determines how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA and RNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in proteins.|
It is a triplet code, where each three-nucleotide sequence, called a codon, codes for a specific amino acid.
There are 64 possible codons, including start and stop codons.
|Importance of Proteins|
|Proteins are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.|
They play a crucial role in almost all biological processes, including cell signaling, enzyme catalysis, and immune response.
Proteins are involved in determining an organism's physical traits and characteristics.
|Protein Synthesis Regulation|
|Gene expression can be regulated at the level of transcription and translation.|
Transcription factors and enhancers can influence the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA, affecting the rate of transcription.
Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or methylation, can regulate the activity and stability of proteins.
|Mutations and Protein Function|
|Mutations in DNA can alter the sequence of amino acids in a protein, potentially affecting its structure and function.|
Some mutations can lead to genetic diseases or increase the risk of certain conditions.
Mutations can also be beneficial, providing variations that contribute to evolution and adaptation.
|DNA carries genetic instructions and undergoes transcription to produce RNA.|
RNA is then translated into proteins through the process of translation.
Proteins are vital for the structure and function of cells and organisms.
|References (download PPTX file for details)|
|Watson JD, et al. (1953). Molecular structure...|
Alberts B, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology o...
Lodish H, et al. (2000). Molecular Cell Biolo...